Not a property of any component of the system, but is still a feature of the system as a whole.


Weak emergence

Can simulate Similar forms of after the fact analysis

Strong emergence

High level -> components. Qualities of such a system is irreducible to it’s constituent parts.

Interesting simulations:

  • Include implicit side effects in interacting objects in a system These modifications to other objects should be subtle.


  • Genetic algorithms


lisp code to produce lisp code, analagous to behaviour of DNA