rate at which bits transferred between sender / receiver
average, rate over a longer period of time.
Instantaneous, rate at given point in time.
Differences with bandwidth
Same unit as bandwidth, however:
Bandwidth is wrt to a link.
Throughput is more general, can be e2e.
Suppose your bandwidth is high (capacity), however your server sends packets verrrrrrrryyyyyyy slowly. As such, your throughput is low relative to bandwidth because your server does not send at max!
Suppose you have 2 water pipe links.
Throughput is the water pipe with lower cap